Women are mentioned throughout the Old and New Testament, but the only New Testament scripture which mentions women in Jesus’ Genealogy is the Book of Matthew 1:1.
At that time in the world, only the males were listed in the genealogy of children, but Matthew took the time to include some of the women even though he is writing his Gospel for the ancient Israelites who were a strict paternally focused society. Because women are mentioned in Jesus’ genealogy, many biblical scholars believe that the genealogy in Matthew 1:1 is that of the Virgin Mary. Since Jesus took his humanity from his mother’s lineage, then, it may be assumed that this is the direct bloodline of Jesus’ humanity.
Theologians also believe the inclusion of some women in Jesus’ genealogy implicates the important role women would play in God’s plan for mankind’s salvation and the Virgin Mary’s special place in that plan. They also say that the inclusion of women who were not Jewish or considered sinners by the societal norms of the times, foreshadows the forgiveness and inclusiveness of the Christian Church.
Women mentioned in Jesus’ Christ’s Genealogy:
Tamar. Tamar was the wife of Judah’s eldest son who was killed. Judah had given her to his second son, but the second son did not want to conceive a child with her, so Judah promised Tamar to his youngest son as a wife to raise up children for the dead son, but this did not come to pass. Because societal norms at that time deemed that this was Tamar’s right, she disguised herself as a prostitute and tricked Judah thereby conceiving (Genesis 38) twin boys Perez and Zerah. Perez is listed in the Old Testament Book of Ruth as an ancestor to King David (Ruth 4:18-22)
Rahad. Rahab saved three spies of Israel who entered Jericho and as a result, she and her family were saved from the destruction of Jericho. She gave birth to Boaz who is listed in Jesus’ genealogy.
Ruth was united with Boaz and gave birth to Obed. Obed gave birth to Jesse and Jesse gave birth to David the King.
Wife of Uriah (Bathsheba) and King David. Bathsheba gave birth to Solomon and Nathan. Theologians believe that it is through the line of Nathan (David and Bathsheba’s 3rd son) that Jesus’ lineage proceeds. There is evidence that Solomon’s and Nathan’s line converge down the line to the lineage of the Virgin Mary through her father, Joachim.
Virgin Mary. In the book of Matthew, Joseph is mentioned in Jesus’ genealogy because Old Testament marriage laws bestowed hereditary rights on both adopted and biological sons.
Although the Virgin Mary’s mother (Anna) and father (Joachim) are not mentioned in the Holy Bible, the Virgin Mary is also of the lineage of King David on her father, Joachim’s, side as written in the Protoevangelium of James. Interestingly, the Virgin Mary’s mother Anna is of the daughters of Aaron which indicates the mother was from the tribe of Levi, the Priest tribe. This is discovered in the Bible when the Virgin Mary visits her cousin on the mother’s side, Elizabeth, who was of the daughters of Aaron and married to Zachariah the priest – the Levite tribe!
Generally intermarriage between tribes was not practiced in ancient Israelite society. However, sometimes the tribes did sometime intermarry and the visit to Elizabeth indicates a merge in the Virgin Mary of the Tribe of Judah/King David line (through her father Joachim as foretold by the Old Testament prophets) and the Tribe of Levi (through her mother). So, of the 12 Tribes of Israel, the Virgin Mary contained both blood lines: the line of Judah/King David and the line of Levi, the Priest Tribe – this is Jesus’ humanity bloodline.
Although much of the Protoevangelium of James is disregarded in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the first five chapters are generally accepted concerning Joachim and Anna’s conception of the Virgin Mary. The hymnody in the Eastern Orthodox Church reflects this acceptance in the Hymns chanted in Church during the Feast days of the Virgin Mary and Joachim and Anna.
Ancient Christian commentary on Scripture, New Testament Ia, Matthew 1-13; The Life of the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, Holy Apostles Convent, Buena Vista, Co; Holy Bible, NKJV.